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2013 Integrated Waste Management Plan

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The 2013 Integrated Waste Management Plan was adopted by City Council on July 2, 2013.

2013 Integrated Waste Management Plan
2013 Integrated Waste Management Plan Executive Summary

At the November 2011 NRC meeting, both staff and the NRC concurred that developing a five year IWMP would be beneficial to the City in managing its Solid Waste service contract, SRRE, and Solid Waste rates over time.  The IWMP would support the City’s SRRE and would guide programs and policies within the City’s Solid Waste Program for the next several years. The IWMP would position the City to reach its long range waste reduction target (1.9 pounds of residential waste generated per capita, as estimated by CalRecycle) by 2020 through specific, feasible and quantifiable waste reduction goals and zero waste implementation actions and strategies.  Commercial sector reductions are also required to meet the long range goals.

Specific programs are recommended in the IWMP to meet the 8,583 tons/year landfill diversion target.  The programs were identified based on the following criteria:  conversion of landfill waste to recycling/composting, ability to meet waste reduction targets by 2020, and cost-effectiveness as measured by potential rate impacts. 

The City Council would need to approve the recommended programs which would occur after IWMP adoption.  This allows time for phasing in programs and implementing outreach efforts to ensure success in meeting IWMP goals.

Timeline for IWMP Development, Review, and Approval

- 2011-2012:        NRC/staff IWMP development
- Jan. 28, 2013:    NRC Draft IWMP review
- Feb. 25, 2013:    NRC Draft IWMP update
- Mar. 21, 2013    NRC Special Solid Waste Workshop ( public review Feb. 25 – Apr. 22)
- April 22, 2013:  NRC Draft IWMP update - accept
- July 2013:    City Council adopts IWMP
- FY13-14:   City Council approves programs to meet IWMP goal

The 2013 Integrated Waste Management Plan was reviewed by the Natural Resources Commission at their January 2013, February 2013 and April 2013 meetings. 


Integrated Waste Management Plan Executive Summary

The Integrated Waste Management Plan (Plan) is an adaptive document compiled by staff with collaborative input from the Davis Natural Resources Commission (NRC), industry experts, and the community at large.  The Plan goal is to reduce waste disposal to 1.9 pounds per person per day calculated by The California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) by the year 2020 and as close to zero pounds per person per day as possible by year 2025.  Davis City Council’s (City Council) 2012-2014 goals are consistent with CalRecycle’s current statewide recycling target and Resolution 11-185, passed by the City Council in 2011, supports development of such a plan to guide the City’s solid waste and recycling programs (Programs) over the next several years.

Adopting the Plan initiates the process for the City Council to begin developing and implementing the recommended Programs that will enable the City to work towards meeting its zero waste objective.   Once the Plan is adopted by the City Council, specific Programs will be reviewed by the NRC and will require City Council approval.  Most of the recommended Programs will require several years for full implementation once approved and some actions will require updates to the Davis Municipal Code.   

The City will need to coordinate with its contract waste and recycling hauler and maintain an updated service Agreement to provide cost-effective services.   Continuing business as usual with the current solid waste services and existing programs will not allow the City to divert additional materials from going to landfill.  A multi-year rate projection included in the draft estimates projected maximum rate increases that would be required to meet the Plan’s primary goal to cost-effectively achieve the City’s weight-based waste reduction targets.  

The Plan will include on-going monitoring, annual City Council and NRC reporting, and will require annual solid waste rate increases to fund Program implementation.  

Community Participation

Community involvement is key to successful Program implementation.  Because Davis is a university town with a high turn-over rental population, constant public and innovative outreach is very important, especially if new programs are being developed.  Each Program will have specific public outreach actions that will be part of the approval process and be carried forward in the implementation phase.  

A community workshop was conducted on March 21, 2013 to discuss the City’s solid waste and recycling planning.  More than 20 people attended the workshop including City Council members, NRC members, CalRecycle staff, Yolo County staff, and consultants.  The workshop also served as the initial public review process of the draft Plan.  The table below summarizes the recommendations from the workshop.

March NRC Workshop


Public Outreach

The City plans to conduct public outreach as part of implementing the recommended Programs.  Outreach actions will take place during the Program development stage as well as during implementation.  One of the key targeted outreach elements will be related to implementing the Organics Program, involving how organic materials are prepared for collection.   Many of the other programs such as Commercial Recycling will overlap during the outreach timeline.   Staff will deliver multiple messages in an effective manner in order to increase efficiency.  The outreach program will utilize help from consultants and consist of: 

  • Targeted outreach to all customers with program change information
  • Programmatic outreach to customers as appropriate
  • Facebook, Twitter, City website, and email list postings
  • Smart phone applications
  • Business waste audits and recycling plans to potential Green Business Partners
  • Annual workshops and periodic surveys

Meeting Waste Reduction Targets

The City’s waste reduction targets are established in resolution 11-185.  Expanding and improving the following programs are recommended to divert approximately 8,583 tons of waste per year from the landfill using the following primary criteria:  reducing landfill disposal, converting landfill waste to the recycling/composting stream, and cost-effectiveness as defined by potential rate impacts.

  • Organics Program – collect yard materials and food scraps for composting from all customers (green carts)
  • Multifamily Recycling Program – increase outreach to maximize recycling in apartments
  • Commercial Recycling Program – increase waste audits and outreach to businesses
  • Construction and Demolition Program - increase waste reduction and recycling for construction activities

In order to meet the City’s waste reduction targets, programs are required in both the Residential and Commercial sectors as indicated below:

Per Capita Single Family Residential Disposal Target

Per Capita Commercial Disposal Target

Estimation of Tonnage Diverted Using Only CalRecycle 2008 Waste Characterization Data


Tonnage Diverted

City-Wide Organics


Expanded Multi-Family Recycling Outreach


Expanded Commercial Recycling Outreach


Expanded C&D Recycling Program




 future compost options

Plan Implementation

After the working draft has been adopted by the City Council, additional actions are required to synchronize Plan actions with the contract waste hauler Agreement provisions and solid waste rates.   The Plan provides the goals and recommended actions to achieve the waste reduction target, the contract waste hauler Agreement dictates service structures and levels to ensure services are provided consistent with Plan recommendations, and solid waste rates need to be updated annually to provide funding to implement the Plan recommendations.   

Implementation Schedule

Prior to implementation, the City Council would need to approve the suite of actions contained in the Implementation Schedule. The table below summarizes the preliminary time frame to implement each of the recommended actions.  Recommended start dates are provided to show prioritization, however City Council will establish the actual time frames and implementation priorities.


Preliminary Approach

 Contract Hauler Agreement Amendments

The City has an existing Agreement with Davis Waste Removal, Inc. (DWR) to provide full solid waste and recycling services (garbage, recycling, yard materials, and street sweeping).  The current Agreement is outdated, last updated in 2004.  Since that time, the state has adopted more ambitious recycling goals, DWR’s fleet needs to be updated with alternative fuel trucks (to be consistent with City Climate Action Plan goals), and services would need to be modified in the future in order to meet City goals.  Also, The City Attorney recommends that the legal aspects of the Agreement be updated to minimize the City’s liabilities going forward.   

The City is considering the addition of a Franchise Fee provision to the Agreement which allows the City to recover costs it incurs by allowing the contractor the solid waste franchise.  Franchise Fees are very common in solid waste agreements throughout California and are primarily focused on addressing transportation and administrative related City costs associated with providing solid waste services to the community.   Ideally the DWR Agreement amendments are approved concurrent with Plan adoption, or shortly thereafter, to align programs and services.

Solid Waste Rates

The City evaluates its solid waste revenue requirements annually and makes changes to solid waste rates through the Proposition 218 Notice process.    The next solid waste rate process is scheduled for June 2013 with City Council approval of a Prop. 218 Notice.  The City Council will make decisions about 2013 rates considering the following factors:  Solid Waste Fund revenue requirements (including Plan recommendations), variable residential rates, whether or not to add a Franchise Fee, and related issues.   An estimated multi-year maximum residential variable rate schedule is presented below to indicate the magnitude of possible future solid waste rate increases.  

Estimated Maximum Multi-Year Solid Waste Rates:  Residential Variable Rate Scenario

Can Size

Dec. 2013

Dec. 2014

Dec. 2015

Dec. 2016

Dec. 2017

Dec. 2018























Maximum rate assumptions:  3% average annual increases in both Contractor payments + landfill fees, full Plan implementation with 3% average annual increases in City program revenue requirements, and 5% Franchise Fee starting in 2013.

The City will use the estimated rates above as a guideline for assessing cost-effectiveness for implementing recommended Programs.   Rate impacts at or below the above estimates will be considered cost-effective, while rate impacts above will be considered non cost-effective.  

Year 2020 and Beyond      

Once adopted, the Plan will be implemented with the involvement of the City Council, NRC and the community.  It is recommended that the City amend the Plan as warranted during implementation, and prepare a comprehensive Plan update every five years.   Staff will provide annual progress reports to the NRC and the City Council.  Meeting the 2020 goal is only the first step toward the City’s zero waste policy objectives.   As technology advances, markets develop, and opportunities to divert waste from the landfill arise, the shift from disposal to commodity will continue to evolve.  Targeting the last 25% of the waste stream will be challenging and must be balanced with reasonable customer rates and other trade-offs.   An updated waste characterization study specific to Davis could be conducted if necessary to identify the remaining waste percentages.   Staff recommends waiting on this study investment until preliminary information is available on the results of Plan implementation.  Outreach will continue to be of the keys for success in meeting the City’s zero waste goals.

Annual NRC and City Council Action Items


Action Item

NRC Schedule

City Council

Public Process

Solid Waste Annual Report



Annual Reporting

Solid Waste Utility Rates



Prop 218

Integrated Waste Management Plan (update every 5 years)

April 2013

June 2013

Public Review


2013_Draft Integrated Waste Management Plan Executive Summary
2013_Draft Integrated Waste Management Plan